Deposition of autoantibodies in glomeruli is a key factor in the development of lupus nephritis (LN). For a long time, anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies were thought to be the main cause of the kidney damage. However, recent studies have shown that the list of autoantibidies that have renal tropism and deposit in the kidney in LN is increasing and the link between anti-dsDNA and renal pathology is weak due to potential confounders. Aspecific bindings of dsDNA with cationic antibodies and of anti-dsDNA with several renal antigens such as actinin, laminin, entactin, and annexinA2 raised doubts about the specific target of these antibodies in the kidney. Moreover, the isotype of anti-dsDNA in SLE and LN has never received adequate interest until the recent observation that IgG2 are preponderant over IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4. Based on the above background, recent studies investigated the involvement of anti-dsDNA IgG2 and of other antibodies in LN. It was concluded that circulating anti-dsDNA IgG2 levels do not distinguish between LN versus non-renal SLE, and, in patients with LN, their levels do not change over time. Circulating levels of other antibodies such as anti-ENO1 and anti-H2 IgG2 were, instead, higher in LN vs non-renal SLE at the time of diagnosis and decreased following therapies. Finally, new classes of renal antibodies that potentially modify the anti-inflammatory response in the kidney are emerging as new co-actors in the pathogenetic scenario. They have been defined as 'second wave antibodies' for the link with detoxifying mechanisms limiting the oxidative stress in glomeruli that are classically stimulated in a second phase of inflammation. These findings have important clinical implications that may modify the laboratory approach to LN. Serum levels of anti-ENO1 and anti-H2 IgG2 should be measured in the follow up of patients for designing the length of therapies and identify those patients who respond to treatments. Anti-SOD2 could help to monitor and potentiate the anti-inflammatory response in the kidney.

A critical view on autoantibodies in lupus nephritis: Concrete knowledge based on evidence

Franco Franceschini;Micaela Fredi;Francesco Locatelli;Ilaria Cavazzana;Francesco Scolari;Federica Mescia;Angela Tincani;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Deposition of autoantibodies in glomeruli is a key factor in the development of lupus nephritis (LN). For a long time, anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies were thought to be the main cause of the kidney damage. However, recent studies have shown that the list of autoantibidies that have renal tropism and deposit in the kidney in LN is increasing and the link between anti-dsDNA and renal pathology is weak due to potential confounders. Aspecific bindings of dsDNA with cationic antibodies and of anti-dsDNA with several renal antigens such as actinin, laminin, entactin, and annexinA2 raised doubts about the specific target of these antibodies in the kidney. Moreover, the isotype of anti-dsDNA in SLE and LN has never received adequate interest until the recent observation that IgG2 are preponderant over IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4. Based on the above background, recent studies investigated the involvement of anti-dsDNA IgG2 and of other antibodies in LN. It was concluded that circulating anti-dsDNA IgG2 levels do not distinguish between LN versus non-renal SLE, and, in patients with LN, their levels do not change over time. Circulating levels of other antibodies such as anti-ENO1 and anti-H2 IgG2 were, instead, higher in LN vs non-renal SLE at the time of diagnosis and decreased following therapies. Finally, new classes of renal antibodies that potentially modify the anti-inflammatory response in the kidney are emerging as new co-actors in the pathogenetic scenario. They have been defined as 'second wave antibodies' for the link with detoxifying mechanisms limiting the oxidative stress in glomeruli that are classically stimulated in a second phase of inflammation. These findings have important clinical implications that may modify the laboratory approach to LN. Serum levels of anti-ENO1 and anti-H2 IgG2 should be measured in the follow up of patients for designing the length of therapies and identify those patients who respond to treatments. Anti-SOD2 could help to monitor and potentiate the anti-inflammatory response in the kidney.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/596009
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