After a short historical account, and a discussion of Hill and Meyerhof’s theory of the energetics of muscular exercise, we analyse steady-state rest and exercise as the condition wherein coupling of respiration to metabolism is most perfect. The quantitative relationships show that the homeostatic equilibrium, centred around arterial pH of 7.4 and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure of 40 mmHg, is attained when the ratio of alveolar ventilation to carbon dioxide flow (V˙ A/ V˙ RCO2) is − 21.6. Several combinations, exploited during exercise, of pertinent respiratory variables are compatible with this equilibrium, allowing adjustment of oxygen flow to oxygen demand without its alteration. During exercise transients, the balance is broken, but the coupling of respiration to metabolism is preserved when, as during moderate exercise, the respiratory system responds faster than the metabolic pathways. At higher exercise intensities, early blood lactate accumulation suggests that the coupling of respiration to metabolism is transiently broken, to be re-established when, at steady state, blood lactate stabilizes at higher levels than resting. In the severe exercise domain, coupling cannot be re-established, so that anaerobic lactic metabolism also contributes to sustain energy demand, lactate concentration goes up and arterial pH falls continuously. The V˙ A/ V˙ RCO2 decreases below − 21.6, because of ensuing hyperventilation, while lactate keeps being accumulated, so that exercise is rapidly interrupted. The most extreme rupture of the homeostatic equilibrium occurs during breath-holding, because oxygen flow from ambient air to mitochondria is interrupted. No coupling at all is possible between respiration and metabolism in this case.

A century of exercise physiology: key concepts on coupling respiratory oxygen flow to muscle energy demand during exercise

Ferretti G.
;
Fagoni N.;Taboni A.;Vinetti G.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

After a short historical account, and a discussion of Hill and Meyerhof’s theory of the energetics of muscular exercise, we analyse steady-state rest and exercise as the condition wherein coupling of respiration to metabolism is most perfect. The quantitative relationships show that the homeostatic equilibrium, centred around arterial pH of 7.4 and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure of 40 mmHg, is attained when the ratio of alveolar ventilation to carbon dioxide flow (V˙ A/ V˙ RCO2) is − 21.6. Several combinations, exploited during exercise, of pertinent respiratory variables are compatible with this equilibrium, allowing adjustment of oxygen flow to oxygen demand without its alteration. During exercise transients, the balance is broken, but the coupling of respiration to metabolism is preserved when, as during moderate exercise, the respiratory system responds faster than the metabolic pathways. At higher exercise intensities, early blood lactate accumulation suggests that the coupling of respiration to metabolism is transiently broken, to be re-established when, at steady state, blood lactate stabilizes at higher levels than resting. In the severe exercise domain, coupling cannot be re-established, so that anaerobic lactic metabolism also contributes to sustain energy demand, lactate concentration goes up and arterial pH falls continuously. The V˙ A/ V˙ RCO2 decreases below − 21.6, because of ensuing hyperventilation, while lactate keeps being accumulated, so that exercise is rapidly interrupted. The most extreme rupture of the homeostatic equilibrium occurs during breath-holding, because oxygen flow from ambient air to mitochondria is interrupted. No coupling at all is possible between respiration and metabolism in this case.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/554133
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