Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, highly aggressive cancer, often insensitive to conventional chemotherapeutics agents. Early diagnosis, followed by radical surgical resection plus/minus adjuvant mitotane therapy, is nowadays the only valuable option. Unfortunately, one out of four patients has metastatic disease at diagnosis and most of radically resected ACC patients are destined to recur with local or metastatic disease. Numerous efforts aimed at identifying molecular alterations crucial for ACC pathogenesis have been extensively conducted, with the hope to develop new treatments. Indeed, multiple genes and pathways have been identified as potentially targetable in ACC patients; however, despite the strong preclinical rationale, translational findings to clinical trials led to date to disappointing results. The immunotherapeutic intervention targeting T-cell checkpoint molecules has been proposed as well, but results obtained in early studies indicate that ACC patients would be unlikely to benefit from immunotherapy. Genetic alterations of different pathways involved in ACC carcinogenesis are also known substrates of resistance to immunotherapy. Among them, β-catenin gene CTNNB1 and TP53 gene are frequently mutated in ACC samples. Overactivation of the β-catenin pathway and loss of p53 protein function are potential tumor-intrinsic factors that, impacting on the ability of ACC cells to recruit dendritic cells, leading to T-cell exclusion, put this tumor among those that are potentially resistant to immunotherapy. Moreover, the steroid phenotype, which implies glucocorticoids hypersecretion in a subset of ACC, contributes to generating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here, we review clinical results of immunotherapy in ACC and we highlight molecular mechanisms driving immunotherapy failure in ACC, suggesting possible approaches to overcome resistance

Molecular Drivers of Potential Immunotherapy Failure in Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

Chiara Fiorentini;Salvatore Grisanti;Deborah Cosentini;Abate, Andrea;Elisa Rossini;Alfredo Berruti;Sandra Sigala
2019

Abstract

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, highly aggressive cancer, often insensitive to conventional chemotherapeutics agents. Early diagnosis, followed by radical surgical resection plus/minus adjuvant mitotane therapy, is nowadays the only valuable option. Unfortunately, one out of four patients has metastatic disease at diagnosis and most of radically resected ACC patients are destined to recur with local or metastatic disease. Numerous efforts aimed at identifying molecular alterations crucial for ACC pathogenesis have been extensively conducted, with the hope to develop new treatments. Indeed, multiple genes and pathways have been identified as potentially targetable in ACC patients; however, despite the strong preclinical rationale, translational findings to clinical trials led to date to disappointing results. The immunotherapeutic intervention targeting T-cell checkpoint molecules has been proposed as well, but results obtained in early studies indicate that ACC patients would be unlikely to benefit from immunotherapy. Genetic alterations of different pathways involved in ACC carcinogenesis are also known substrates of resistance to immunotherapy. Among them, β-catenin gene CTNNB1 and TP53 gene are frequently mutated in ACC samples. Overactivation of the β-catenin pathway and loss of p53 protein function are potential tumor-intrinsic factors that, impacting on the ability of ACC cells to recruit dendritic cells, leading to T-cell exclusion, put this tumor among those that are potentially resistant to immunotherapy. Moreover, the steroid phenotype, which implies glucocorticoids hypersecretion in a subset of ACC, contributes to generating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here, we review clinical results of immunotherapy in ACC and we highlight molecular mechanisms driving immunotherapy failure in ACC, suggesting possible approaches to overcome resistance
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/516867
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