: Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of myopathies characterized by progressive muscle weakness leading to death from heart or respiratory failure. MDs are caused by mutations in genes involved in both the development and organization of muscle fibers. Several animal models harboring mutations in MD-associated genes have been developed so far. Together with rodents, the zebrafish is one of the most popular animal models used to reproduce MDs because of the high level of sequence homology with the human genome and its genetic manipulability. This review describes the most important zebrafish mutant models of MD and the most advanced tools used to generate and characterize all these valuable transgenic lines. Zebrafish models of MDs have been generated by introducing mutations to muscle-specific genes with different genetic techniques, such as (i) N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment, (ii) the injection of specific morpholino, (iii) tol2-based transgenesis, (iv) TALEN, (v) and CRISPR/Cas9 technology. All these models are extensively used either to study muscle development and function or understand the pathogenetic mechanisms of MDs. Several tools have also been developed to characterize these zebrafish models by checking (i) motor behavior, (ii) muscle fiber structure, (iii) oxidative stress, and (iv) mitochondrial function and dynamics. Further, living biosensor models, based on the expression of fluorescent reporter proteins under the control of muscle-specific promoters or responsive elements, have been revealed to be powerful tools to follow molecular dynamics at the level of a single muscle fiber. Thus, zebrafish models of MDs can also be a powerful tool to search for new drugs or gene therapies able to block or slow down disease progression.

Modeling Human Muscular Dystrophies in Zebrafish: Mutant Lines, Transgenic Fluorescent Biosensors, and Phenotyping Assays

Cannone, Elena;Schiavone, Marco
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of myopathies characterized by progressive muscle weakness leading to death from heart or respiratory failure. MDs are caused by mutations in genes involved in both the development and organization of muscle fibers. Several animal models harboring mutations in MD-associated genes have been developed so far. Together with rodents, the zebrafish is one of the most popular animal models used to reproduce MDs because of the high level of sequence homology with the human genome and its genetic manipulability. This review describes the most important zebrafish mutant models of MD and the most advanced tools used to generate and characterize all these valuable transgenic lines. Zebrafish models of MDs have been generated by introducing mutations to muscle-specific genes with different genetic techniques, such as (i) N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment, (ii) the injection of specific morpholino, (iii) tol2-based transgenesis, (iv) TALEN, (v) and CRISPR/Cas9 technology. All these models are extensively used either to study muscle development and function or understand the pathogenetic mechanisms of MDs. Several tools have also been developed to characterize these zebrafish models by checking (i) motor behavior, (ii) muscle fiber structure, (iii) oxidative stress, and (iv) mitochondrial function and dynamics. Further, living biosensor models, based on the expression of fluorescent reporter proteins under the control of muscle-specific promoters or responsive elements, have been revealed to be powerful tools to follow molecular dynamics at the level of a single muscle fiber. Thus, zebrafish models of MDs can also be a powerful tool to search for new drugs or gene therapies able to block or slow down disease progression.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/575785
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