In pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), elevated Akt signaling is associated with increased malignancy. Here, we report that expression of a constitutively active, myristoylated form of Akt1 (myrAkt1) in human RMS RD cells led to hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) pathway, resulting in the loss of both MyoD and myogenic capacity, and an increase of Ki67 expression due to high cell mitosis. MyrAkt1 signaling increased migratory and invasive cell traits, as detected by wound healing, zymography, and xenograft zebrafish assays, and promoted repair of DNA damage after radiotherapy and doxorubicin treatments, as revealed by nuclear detection of phosphorylated H2A histone family member X (γH2AX) through activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Treatment with synthetic inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt was sufficient to completely revert the aggressive cell phenotype, while the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin failed to block cell dissemination. Furthermore, we found that pronounced Akt1 signaling increased the susceptibility to cell apoptosis after treatments with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and lovastatin, enzymatic inhibitors of hexokinase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), especially in combination with radiotherapy and doxorubicin. In conclusion, these data suggest that restriction of glucose metabolism and the mevalonate pathway, in combination with standard therapy, may increase therapy success in RMS tumors characterized by a dysregulated Akt signaling.

Hyperactive Akt1 Signaling Increases Tumor Progression and DNA Repair in Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma RD Line and Confers Susceptibility to Glycolysis and Mevalonate Pathway Inhibitors

Codenotti, Silvia;Zizioli, Daniela;Mignani, Luca;Rezzola, Sara;Tabellini, Giovanna;Parolini, Silvia;Giacomini, Arianna;Asperti, Michela;Poli, Maura;Mandracchia, Delia;Vezzoli, Marika;Bernardi, Simona;Russo, Domenico;Mitola, Stefania;Monti, Eugenio;Triggiani, Luca;Tomasini, Davide;Marampon, Francesco;Fanzani, Alessandro
2022-01-01

Abstract

In pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), elevated Akt signaling is associated with increased malignancy. Here, we report that expression of a constitutively active, myristoylated form of Akt1 (myrAkt1) in human RMS RD cells led to hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) pathway, resulting in the loss of both MyoD and myogenic capacity, and an increase of Ki67 expression due to high cell mitosis. MyrAkt1 signaling increased migratory and invasive cell traits, as detected by wound healing, zymography, and xenograft zebrafish assays, and promoted repair of DNA damage after radiotherapy and doxorubicin treatments, as revealed by nuclear detection of phosphorylated H2A histone family member X (γH2AX) through activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Treatment with synthetic inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt was sufficient to completely revert the aggressive cell phenotype, while the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin failed to block cell dissemination. Furthermore, we found that pronounced Akt1 signaling increased the susceptibility to cell apoptosis after treatments with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and lovastatin, enzymatic inhibitors of hexokinase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), especially in combination with radiotherapy and doxorubicin. In conclusion, these data suggest that restriction of glucose metabolism and the mevalonate pathway, in combination with standard therapy, may increase therapy success in RMS tumors characterized by a dysregulated Akt signaling.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/563861
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