Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) is one of the major inhibitors involved in protease/antiprotease homeostasis, and it is mainly produced by hepatocytes and pulmonary epithelial cells. Its deficiency, called alpha1-antitrypsin deficit (AATD), leads to severe hepatic and respiratory issues. Also, AAT is released into the bloodstream providing systemic anti-inflammatory effects. Apart from acting as an acute-phase anti-inflammatory protein, it can be a biomarker for monitoring disease evolution. A reduced or defective production leads to a loss of anti-inflammatory function, protease-antiprotease imbalance and cellular engorgement due to polymers deposition, with system-wide repercussions. This review aims to evaluate AATD condition in the major vessels of the head and neck, thoracic and abdominal districts. Also, a dedicated focus on autoimmune vascular diseases will be provided. A critical revision of the main literature findings starting from the 1980s until now has been performed. Studies conducted over the years have provided several contradictory pieces of evidence. Most authors acknowledge the protective and anti-inflammatory AAT role on the vascular endothelium. However, correlations between AATD and major arteries, cerebral and cardiovascular conditions, and autoimmune diseases remain unclear. Most studies recognize the role of AATD in vascular diseases but only as a cofactor inducing cellular and tissue structure impairments. However, this condition alone is not enough to determine new disease onset. Due to the opposing results reported over the years, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the role covered by AATD in vascular diseases. A renewed interest in this research field should be encouraged to grant new solid evidence and validate the putative role of AATD screening and replacement therapy as useful diagnostic and treatment tools.

Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and cardiovascular disease: questions and issues of a debated relation

Pini, Laura
;
Giordani, Jordan;Ciarfaglia, Manuela;Arici, Marianna;Tantucci, Claudio
2022-01-01

Abstract

Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) is one of the major inhibitors involved in protease/antiprotease homeostasis, and it is mainly produced by hepatocytes and pulmonary epithelial cells. Its deficiency, called alpha1-antitrypsin deficit (AATD), leads to severe hepatic and respiratory issues. Also, AAT is released into the bloodstream providing systemic anti-inflammatory effects. Apart from acting as an acute-phase anti-inflammatory protein, it can be a biomarker for monitoring disease evolution. A reduced or defective production leads to a loss of anti-inflammatory function, protease-antiprotease imbalance and cellular engorgement due to polymers deposition, with system-wide repercussions. This review aims to evaluate AATD condition in the major vessels of the head and neck, thoracic and abdominal districts. Also, a dedicated focus on autoimmune vascular diseases will be provided. A critical revision of the main literature findings starting from the 1980s until now has been performed. Studies conducted over the years have provided several contradictory pieces of evidence. Most authors acknowledge the protective and anti-inflammatory AAT role on the vascular endothelium. However, correlations between AATD and major arteries, cerebral and cardiovascular conditions, and autoimmune diseases remain unclear. Most studies recognize the role of AATD in vascular diseases but only as a cofactor inducing cellular and tissue structure impairments. However, this condition alone is not enough to determine new disease onset. Due to the opposing results reported over the years, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the role covered by AATD in vascular diseases. A renewed interest in this research field should be encouraged to grant new solid evidence and validate the putative role of AATD screening and replacement therapy as useful diagnostic and treatment tools.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/562815
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