The intestinal epithelium plays a key role in managing the relationship with the environment, the internal and external inputs, and their changes. One percent of the gut epithelium is represented by the enteroendocrine cells. Among the enteroendocrine cells, a group of specific cells characterized by the presence of yellow granules, the enterochromaffin cells, has been identified. These granules contain many secretion products. Studies showed that these cells are involved in gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions and hyperalgesia; their number increases in these conditions both in affected and not-affected zones of the gut. Moreover, they are involved in the preservation and modulation of the intestinal function and motility, and they sense metabolic-nutritional alterations. Sometimes, they are confused or mixed with other enteroendocrine cells, and it is difficult to define their activity. However, it is known that they change their functions during diseases; they increased in number, but their involvement is related mainly to some secretion products (serotonin, melatonin, substance P). The mechanisms linked to these alterations are not well investigated. Herein, we provide an up-to-date highlight of the main findings about these cells, from their discovery to today. We emphasized their origin, morphology, and their link with diet to better evaluate their role for preventing or treating metabolic disorders considering that these diseases are currently a public health burden.

A Focus on Enterochromaffin Cells among the Enteroendocrine Cells: Localization, Morphology, and Role

Rezzani, Rita;Franco, Caterina;Franceschetti, Lorenzo;Favero, Gaia
2022-01-01

Abstract

The intestinal epithelium plays a key role in managing the relationship with the environment, the internal and external inputs, and their changes. One percent of the gut epithelium is represented by the enteroendocrine cells. Among the enteroendocrine cells, a group of specific cells characterized by the presence of yellow granules, the enterochromaffin cells, has been identified. These granules contain many secretion products. Studies showed that these cells are involved in gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions and hyperalgesia; their number increases in these conditions both in affected and not-affected zones of the gut. Moreover, they are involved in the preservation and modulation of the intestinal function and motility, and they sense metabolic-nutritional alterations. Sometimes, they are confused or mixed with other enteroendocrine cells, and it is difficult to define their activity. However, it is known that they change their functions during diseases; they increased in number, but their involvement is related mainly to some secretion products (serotonin, melatonin, substance P). The mechanisms linked to these alterations are not well investigated. Herein, we provide an up-to-date highlight of the main findings about these cells, from their discovery to today. We emphasized their origin, morphology, and their link with diet to better evaluate their role for preventing or treating metabolic disorders considering that these diseases are currently a public health burden.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/561058
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