Head and neck cancers (HNCs) represent the sixth most widespread malignancy worldwide. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic drugs represent the main clinical approaches for HNC patients. Moreover, HNCs are characterised by an elevated mutational load; however, specific genetic mutations or biomarkers have not yet been found. In this scenario, personalised medicine is showing its efficacy. To study the reliability and the effects of personalised treatments, preclinical research can take advantage of next-generation sequencing and innovative technologies that have been developed to obtain genomic and multi-omic profiles to drive personalised treatments. The crosstalk between malignant and healthy components, as well as interactions with extracellular matrices, are important features which are responsible for treatment failure. Preclinical research has constantly implemented in vitro and in vivo models to mimic the natural tumour microenvironment. Among them, 3D systems have been developed to reproduce the tumour mass architecture, such as biomimetic scaffolds and organoids. In addition, in vivo models have been changed over the last decades to overcome problems such as animal management complexity and time-consuming experiments. In this review, we will explore the new approaches aimed to improve preclinical tools to study and apply precision medicine as a therapeutic option for patients affected by HNCs.

Precision Medicine in Head and Neck Cancers: Genomic and Preclinical Approaches

Schiavone, Marco
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Head and neck cancers (HNCs) represent the sixth most widespread malignancy worldwide. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic drugs represent the main clinical approaches for HNC patients. Moreover, HNCs are characterised by an elevated mutational load; however, specific genetic mutations or biomarkers have not yet been found. In this scenario, personalised medicine is showing its efficacy. To study the reliability and the effects of personalised treatments, preclinical research can take advantage of next-generation sequencing and innovative technologies that have been developed to obtain genomic and multi-omic profiles to drive personalised treatments. The crosstalk between malignant and healthy components, as well as interactions with extracellular matrices, are important features which are responsible for treatment failure. Preclinical research has constantly implemented in vitro and in vivo models to mimic the natural tumour microenvironment. Among them, 3D systems have been developed to reproduce the tumour mass architecture, such as biomimetic scaffolds and organoids. In addition, in vivo models have been changed over the last decades to overcome problems such as animal management complexity and time-consuming experiments. In this review, we will explore the new approaches aimed to improve preclinical tools to study and apply precision medicine as a therapeutic option for patients affected by HNCs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/559255
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