Background: Antibodies against cationic platelet chemokine, platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4), have been described in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but also in patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) even in the absence of heparin treatment and HIT-related clinical manifestations. Anti-PF4 antibodies have been recently described also in subjects who developed thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) in association with adenoviral vector-based, but not with mRNA-based, COVID-19 vaccines. Objective: To investigate whether COVID-19 vaccination affects the production of anti-PF4 antibodies in aPL-positive patients and in control groups. Methods: Anti-PF4 immunoglobulins were detected in patients' and controls' serum samples by ELISA and their ability to activate normal platelets was assessed by the platelet aggregation test. Results: Anti-PF4 were found in 9 of 126 aPL-positive patients, 4 of 50 patients with COVID-19, 9 of 49 with other infections, and 1 of 50 aPL-negative patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical manifestations of TTS were not observed in any aPL patient positive for anti-PF4, whose serum failed to cause platelet aggregation. The administration of COVID-19 vaccines did not affect the production of anti-PF4 immunoglobulins or their ability to cause platelet aggregation in 44 aPL-positive patients tested before and after vaccination. Conclusions: Heparin treatment-independent anti-PF4 antibodies can be found in aPL-positive patients and asymptomatic carriers, but their presence, titre as well as in vitro effect on platelet activation are not affected by COVID-19 vaccination.

Production of anti-PF4 antibodies in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients is not affected by COVID-19 vaccination

Martini G;Franceschini F;Tincani A;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Antibodies against cationic platelet chemokine, platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4), have been described in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but also in patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) even in the absence of heparin treatment and HIT-related clinical manifestations. Anti-PF4 antibodies have been recently described also in subjects who developed thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) in association with adenoviral vector-based, but not with mRNA-based, COVID-19 vaccines. Objective: To investigate whether COVID-19 vaccination affects the production of anti-PF4 antibodies in aPL-positive patients and in control groups. Methods: Anti-PF4 immunoglobulins were detected in patients' and controls' serum samples by ELISA and their ability to activate normal platelets was assessed by the platelet aggregation test. Results: Anti-PF4 were found in 9 of 126 aPL-positive patients, 4 of 50 patients with COVID-19, 9 of 49 with other infections, and 1 of 50 aPL-negative patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical manifestations of TTS were not observed in any aPL patient positive for anti-PF4, whose serum failed to cause platelet aggregation. The administration of COVID-19 vaccines did not affect the production of anti-PF4 immunoglobulins or their ability to cause platelet aggregation in 44 aPL-positive patients tested before and after vaccination. Conclusions: Heparin treatment-independent anti-PF4 antibodies can be found in aPL-positive patients and asymptomatic carriers, but their presence, titre as well as in vitro effect on platelet activation are not affected by COVID-19 vaccination.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/559055
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