Objective: Although orbital surgery has always represented a challenge for neurosurgeons, keyhole and endoscopic techniques are gradually surging in popularity maximizing functional and esthetic outcomes. This quantitative anatomical study first compared the surgical operability achieved through three endoscopic approaches within the inferior orbit: the endoscopic sublabial transmaxillary (ESTMax), the endoscopic endonasal transethmoidal (EETEth), and the endoscope-assisted lateral orbitotomy (ELO). Methods: Each of these approaches was performed bilaterally on five specimens. We described the ESTMax step-by-step, underlining its advantages and pitfalls in comparison with EETEth and ELO. Then, we assessed surgical measurements and operability in ESTMax, EETEth, and ELO. Results: The ESTMax provided the most favorable operative window (278.9 ± 43.8 mm2; EETEth: 240.8 ± 21.5 mm2, p < 0.001; ELO: 263.1 ± 19.8 mm2, p = 0.006), the broadest surgical field area (415.9 ± 26.4 mm2; EETEth: 386.7 ± 30.1 mm2, p = 0.041; ELO: 305.2 ± 26.3 mm2, p < 0.001), surgical field depths significantly shorter than EETEth (p < 0.001) but similar to ELO, the widest surgical angles of attack (45°–65°; EETEth: 20°–30°, p < 0.001; ELO: 25°–50°, p < 0.001), and the greatest surgical mobility areas (EETEth: p < 0.001; ELO: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the ESTMax allowed multi-angled exposure and handy maneuverability around all the inferior intraorbital targets. Small anterior antrostomy, blunt intraorbital dissections, direct targets’ approach, orbital floor reconstruction, and maxillary bone flap replacement may limit the ESTMax morbidity rates. Conclusions: The ESTMax is a minimally invasive “head-on” orbital approach that exploits endoscopic surgery advantages avoiding the cranio-orbital and trans-nasal approach limitations and possible complications. It represents a promising alternative to EETEth and ELO because of its optimal operability for resecting lesions extending into the entire inferior orbit.

Endoscopic sublabial transmaxillary approach to the inferior orbit: pearls and pitfalls—A comparative anatomical study

Donofrio C. A.
;
2021

Abstract

Objective: Although orbital surgery has always represented a challenge for neurosurgeons, keyhole and endoscopic techniques are gradually surging in popularity maximizing functional and esthetic outcomes. This quantitative anatomical study first compared the surgical operability achieved through three endoscopic approaches within the inferior orbit: the endoscopic sublabial transmaxillary (ESTMax), the endoscopic endonasal transethmoidal (EETEth), and the endoscope-assisted lateral orbitotomy (ELO). Methods: Each of these approaches was performed bilaterally on five specimens. We described the ESTMax step-by-step, underlining its advantages and pitfalls in comparison with EETEth and ELO. Then, we assessed surgical measurements and operability in ESTMax, EETEth, and ELO. Results: The ESTMax provided the most favorable operative window (278.9 ± 43.8 mm2; EETEth: 240.8 ± 21.5 mm2, p < 0.001; ELO: 263.1 ± 19.8 mm2, p = 0.006), the broadest surgical field area (415.9 ± 26.4 mm2; EETEth: 386.7 ± 30.1 mm2, p = 0.041; ELO: 305.2 ± 26.3 mm2, p < 0.001), surgical field depths significantly shorter than EETEth (p < 0.001) but similar to ELO, the widest surgical angles of attack (45°–65°; EETEth: 20°–30°, p < 0.001; ELO: 25°–50°, p < 0.001), and the greatest surgical mobility areas (EETEth: p < 0.001; ELO: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the ESTMax allowed multi-angled exposure and handy maneuverability around all the inferior intraorbital targets. Small anterior antrostomy, blunt intraorbital dissections, direct targets’ approach, orbital floor reconstruction, and maxillary bone flap replacement may limit the ESTMax morbidity rates. Conclusions: The ESTMax is a minimally invasive “head-on” orbital approach that exploits endoscopic surgery advantages avoiding the cranio-orbital and trans-nasal approach limitations and possible complications. It represents a promising alternative to EETEth and ELO because of its optimal operability for resecting lesions extending into the entire inferior orbit.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11379/549523
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact