The inflammatory and IFN pathways of innate immunity play a key role in both resistance and pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Innate sensors and SARS-CoV-2-Associated Molecular Patterns (SAMPs) remain to be completely defined. Here we identify single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fragments from SARS-CoV-2 genome as direct activators of endosomal TLR7/8 and MyD88 pathway. The same sequences induced human DC activation in terms of phenotype and functions, such as IFN and cytokine production and Th1 polarization. A bioinformatic scan of the viral genome identified several hundreds of fragments potentially activating TLR7/8, suggesting that products of virus endosomal processing potently activate the IFN and inflammatory responses downstream these receptors. In vivo, SAMPs induced MyD88-dependent lung inflammation characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory and cytotoxic mediators and immune cell infiltration, as well as splenic DC phenotypical maturation. These results identify TLR7/8 as crucial cellular sensors of ssRNAs encoded by SARS-CoV-2 involved in host resistance and disease pathogenesis of COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2-associated ssRNAs activate inflammation and immunity via TLR7/8

Valentina Salvi;Hoang Oanh Nguyen;Francesca Sozio;Tiziana Schioppa;Carolina Gaudenzi;Mattia Laffranchi;Mauro Passari;Ilaria Barbazza;Laura Tiberio;Annalisa Del Prete;Daniela Bosisio
2021-01-01

Abstract

The inflammatory and IFN pathways of innate immunity play a key role in both resistance and pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Innate sensors and SARS-CoV-2-Associated Molecular Patterns (SAMPs) remain to be completely defined. Here we identify single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fragments from SARS-CoV-2 genome as direct activators of endosomal TLR7/8 and MyD88 pathway. The same sequences induced human DC activation in terms of phenotype and functions, such as IFN and cytokine production and Th1 polarization. A bioinformatic scan of the viral genome identified several hundreds of fragments potentially activating TLR7/8, suggesting that products of virus endosomal processing potently activate the IFN and inflammatory responses downstream these receptors. In vivo, SAMPs induced MyD88-dependent lung inflammation characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory and cytotoxic mediators and immune cell infiltration, as well as splenic DC phenotypical maturation. These results identify TLR7/8 as crucial cellular sensors of ssRNAs encoded by SARS-CoV-2 involved in host resistance and disease pathogenesis of COVID-19.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/546899
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