Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive neoplasm derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). In this study, we investigated by immunohistochemical analysis the expression of E-cadherin (EC) on pDCs in reactive lymph nodes and tonsils, bone marrow, and in BPDCN. We compared the expression of EC in BPDCN to that in leukemia cutis (LC) and cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), the latter typically featuring pDC activation. In BPDCN, we also assessed the immunomodulatory activity of malignant pDCs through the expression of several type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling effectors and downstream targets, PD-L1/CD274, and determined the extent of tumor infiltration by CD8-expressing T cells. In reactive lymph nodes and tonsils, pDCs expressed EC, whereas no reactivity was observed in bone marrow pDCs. BPDCN showed EC expression in the malignant pDCs in the vast majority of cutaneous (31/33 cases, 94%), nodal, and spleen localizations (3/3 cases, 100%), whereas it was more variable in the bone marrow (5/13, 38,5%), where tumor cells expressed EC similarly to the skin counterpart in 4 cases and differently in other 4. Notably, EC was undetectable in LC (n = 30) and in juxta-epidermal pDCs in CLE (n = 31). Contrary to CLE showing robust expression of IFN-I-induced proteins MX1 and ISG5 in 20/23 cases (87%), and STAT1 phosphorylation, BPDCN biopsies showed inconsistent levels of these proteins in most cases (85%). Expression of IFN-I-induced genes, IFI27, IFIT1, ISG15, RSAD2, and SIGLEC1, was also significantly (P < 0.05) lower in BPDCN as compared with CLE. In BPDCN, a significantly blunted IFN-I response correlated with a poor CD8+T-cell infiltration and the lack of PD-L1/CD274 expression by the tumor cells. This study identifies EC as a novel pDC marker of diagnostic relevance in BPDCN. The results propose a scenario whereby malignant pDCs through EC-driven signaling promote the blunting of IFN-I signaling and, thereby, the establishment of a poorly immunogenic tumor microenvironment.

E-Cadherin expression and blunted interferon response in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm

Lorenzi L.;Lonardi S.;Vairo D.;Bernardelli A.;Tomaselli M.;Bugatti M.;Arisi M.;Vermi W.;Giliani S. C.;Facchetti F.
2021

Abstract

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive neoplasm derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). In this study, we investigated by immunohistochemical analysis the expression of E-cadherin (EC) on pDCs in reactive lymph nodes and tonsils, bone marrow, and in BPDCN. We compared the expression of EC in BPDCN to that in leukemia cutis (LC) and cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), the latter typically featuring pDC activation. In BPDCN, we also assessed the immunomodulatory activity of malignant pDCs through the expression of several type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling effectors and downstream targets, PD-L1/CD274, and determined the extent of tumor infiltration by CD8-expressing T cells. In reactive lymph nodes and tonsils, pDCs expressed EC, whereas no reactivity was observed in bone marrow pDCs. BPDCN showed EC expression in the malignant pDCs in the vast majority of cutaneous (31/33 cases, 94%), nodal, and spleen localizations (3/3 cases, 100%), whereas it was more variable in the bone marrow (5/13, 38,5%), where tumor cells expressed EC similarly to the skin counterpart in 4 cases and differently in other 4. Notably, EC was undetectable in LC (n = 30) and in juxta-epidermal pDCs in CLE (n = 31). Contrary to CLE showing robust expression of IFN-I-induced proteins MX1 and ISG5 in 20/23 cases (87%), and STAT1 phosphorylation, BPDCN biopsies showed inconsistent levels of these proteins in most cases (85%). Expression of IFN-I-induced genes, IFI27, IFIT1, ISG15, RSAD2, and SIGLEC1, was also significantly (P < 0.05) lower in BPDCN as compared with CLE. In BPDCN, a significantly blunted IFN-I response correlated with a poor CD8+T-cell infiltration and the lack of PD-L1/CD274 expression by the tumor cells. This study identifies EC as a novel pDC marker of diagnostic relevance in BPDCN. The results propose a scenario whereby malignant pDCs through EC-driven signaling promote the blunting of IFN-I signaling and, thereby, the establishment of a poorly immunogenic tumor microenvironment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/546757
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