Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a large and heterogeneous group of malignancies with various biological and clinical characteristics, depending on the site of origin and the grade of tumor proliferation. In NETs, as in other cancer types, molecularly targeted therapies have radically changed the therapeutic landscape. Recently two targeted agents, the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, have both demonstrated significantly prolonged progression free survival in patients with advanced pancreatic NETs. Despite these important therapeutic developments, there are still significant limitations to the use of these agents due to the lack of accurate biomarkers for predicting tumor response and efficacy of therapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the current clinical data for the evaluation of predictive factors of response to/efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in advanced pancreatic NETs. Surrogate indicators discussed include circulating and tissue markers, as well as non-invasive imaging techniques.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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