Thyroid diseases (TDs) have been widely associated with HIV infection. However, data about TDs prevalence and distribution are controversial, and few published studies are available. The aim of our study was to assess prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic thyroid disturbances, including thyroid cancers, in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed at the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of the University of Brescia, Italy, in the period 2005–2017. We identified all HIV-positive patients with a diagnosis of symptomatic TD in the electronic database of our Department (HIVeDB); we also operated a record-linkage between our data and the Health Protection Agency database (HPADB) of Brescia Province. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with TDs onset; an incidence rate analysis was also performed. During the study period, 6343 HIV-infected patients have been followed at our Department; 123 received a diagnosis of symptomatic TD (1.94% of the entire cohort). In the TDs group, almost half of patients were females (n = 59, 48%), mean age was 47.15 years (SD: 11.56). At TD diagnosis, mean T CD4+ cell count was 491 cell/uL and most patients showed undetectable HIV-RNA (n = 117, 95.12%). Among them, 81 patients were found to have hypothyroidism (63 with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis), 21 hyperthyroidism (17 suffered from Graves’ disease), while 11 subjects were diagnosed with a primitive thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid cancer was the most frequent histotype (n = 7, 63.63%), followed by medullary (n = 2, 18.18%) and follicular thyroid cancer (n = 1, 9.1%). Male gender was a protective factor for TDs development, especially for hypothyroidism (p < 0.001); age emerged as a variable associated with both hypothyroidism (p = 0.03) and thyroid cancer (p = 0.03), while CD4+ cell nadir <200 cell/mm3 was associated with symptomatic hyperthyroidism (p = 0.005). To conclude, symptomatic thyroid dysfunctions rate in well-treated HIV-infected patients is low. Age and gender are crucial elements in the onset of thyroid abnormalities, together with T CD4+ cell nadir. Interestingly, medullary thyroid cancer seems to be much more frequent in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population.

Low prevalence of symptomatic thyroid diseases and thyroid cancers in HIV-infected patients

Properzi M.;della Giustina T.;Mentasti S.;Castelli F.;Chiesa A.;Gregori N.;Quiros-Roldan E.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Thyroid diseases (TDs) have been widely associated with HIV infection. However, data about TDs prevalence and distribution are controversial, and few published studies are available. The aim of our study was to assess prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic thyroid disturbances, including thyroid cancers, in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed at the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of the University of Brescia, Italy, in the period 2005–2017. We identified all HIV-positive patients with a diagnosis of symptomatic TD in the electronic database of our Department (HIVeDB); we also operated a record-linkage between our data and the Health Protection Agency database (HPADB) of Brescia Province. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with TDs onset; an incidence rate analysis was also performed. During the study period, 6343 HIV-infected patients have been followed at our Department; 123 received a diagnosis of symptomatic TD (1.94% of the entire cohort). In the TDs group, almost half of patients were females (n = 59, 48%), mean age was 47.15 years (SD: 11.56). At TD diagnosis, mean T CD4+ cell count was 491 cell/uL and most patients showed undetectable HIV-RNA (n = 117, 95.12%). Among them, 81 patients were found to have hypothyroidism (63 with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis), 21 hyperthyroidism (17 suffered from Graves’ disease), while 11 subjects were diagnosed with a primitive thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid cancer was the most frequent histotype (n = 7, 63.63%), followed by medullary (n = 2, 18.18%) and follicular thyroid cancer (n = 1, 9.1%). Male gender was a protective factor for TDs development, especially for hypothyroidism (p < 0.001); age emerged as a variable associated with both hypothyroidism (p = 0.03) and thyroid cancer (p = 0.03), while CD4+ cell nadir <200 cell/mm3 was associated with symptomatic hyperthyroidism (p = 0.005). To conclude, symptomatic thyroid dysfunctions rate in well-treated HIV-infected patients is low. Age and gender are crucial elements in the onset of thyroid abnormalities, together with T CD4+ cell nadir. Interestingly, medullary thyroid cancer seems to be much more frequent in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/529815
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