Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are increasingly used in uremic patients (pts). However, their effect on serum potassium (sK) concentrations in anuric pts on chronic hemodialysis treatment (HD) is controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate sK before and after the start of ACEi/ARB therapy. In the period 1/1/2015 - 31/12/2015, 112 out of 240 prevalent HD pts on thrice weekly HD treatment followed at our institution started the ACEi/ARB therapy. The mean age was 67 ± 14 years, 67/112 were men, dialysis vintage was 6-212 months. In the 3 months before (PRE; N° 36 HD sessions) and after (POST; N° 36 HD sessions) the start of ACEi/ARB therapy, the following variables were evaluated in pre dialysis after the long interdialysis interval: sK (mean of 12 determinations; mmol/L), maximum sK (maximum K value observed during observations; sKmax; mmol/L), serum sodium (sNa; mmol/L), pre dialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP; mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; mm Hg), body weight (BW; Kg), interdialytic weight gain (IWG; Kg), Kt/V, serum bicarbonate concentrations (sBic; mmol/L), protein catabolic rate (PCRn; g/KgBW/day). SBP, DBP, IWG are the mean of the 24 HD sessions. Out of 112 patients, 102 were on antihypertensive therapy. The duration of HD and blood and dialysate flow rates were kept constant. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. Student t test for paired and unpaired data for normally distributed variables, Mann-Whitney test for medians, χ2 test for categorical data were employed to compare groups. A significant difference was defined as p < 0.05. sK increased from 5.0 ± 0.4 mmol/L PRE to 5.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L POST (p < 0.0001). sKmax increased from 5.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L PRE to 6.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L POST (p < 0.0001). The percentage of pts with normal sK concentrations decreased from 82% PRE to 29% POST (p < 0.0001). Mild hyperkalemia increased from 18 to 52% (p < 0.001); in 31% of the patients, it was necessary to reduce the K dialysate concentration. None of the patients had severe hyperkalemia PRE, but 19% developed severe hyperkalemia POST (p < 0.0001) necessitating treatment withdrawal. Mean sK in these pts varied from 5.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L PRE to 6.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L at the moment of withdrawal (p < 0.0001) and sKmax from 5.5 ± mmol/L PRE to 6.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L (p< 0.0001). After withdrawal of ACEi/ARB, sK and sKmax concentrations decreased to basal levels within 1 month. There were no significant changes of BW, IWG, SBP, DBP, Na, Hb, Kt/V, sBic, and PCRn in both periods. ACEi/ARB therapy is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia in anuric hemodialysis patients. The proportion of patients with normal sK concentrations decreased from 82 to 29% and with mild hyperkalemia increased from 18 to 52%. Severe hyperkalemia necessitating the interruption of ACEi/ARB therapy developed in 19% of patients. This suggests great caution in the widest utilization of this class of drugs in HD patients.

Use of renin-angiotensin system blockers increases serum potassium in anuric hemodialysis patients.

Ezio Movilli
Investigation
;
Corrado Camerini
;
Paola Gaggia
Investigation
;
Roberto Zubani
Investigation
;
Giovanni Cancarini
Supervision
2018-01-01

Abstract

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are increasingly used in uremic patients (pts). However, their effect on serum potassium (sK) concentrations in anuric pts on chronic hemodialysis treatment (HD) is controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate sK before and after the start of ACEi/ARB therapy. In the period 1/1/2015 - 31/12/2015, 112 out of 240 prevalent HD pts on thrice weekly HD treatment followed at our institution started the ACEi/ARB therapy. The mean age was 67 ± 14 years, 67/112 were men, dialysis vintage was 6-212 months. In the 3 months before (PRE; N° 36 HD sessions) and after (POST; N° 36 HD sessions) the start of ACEi/ARB therapy, the following variables were evaluated in pre dialysis after the long interdialysis interval: sK (mean of 12 determinations; mmol/L), maximum sK (maximum K value observed during observations; sKmax; mmol/L), serum sodium (sNa; mmol/L), pre dialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP; mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; mm Hg), body weight (BW; Kg), interdialytic weight gain (IWG; Kg), Kt/V, serum bicarbonate concentrations (sBic; mmol/L), protein catabolic rate (PCRn; g/KgBW/day). SBP, DBP, IWG are the mean of the 24 HD sessions. Out of 112 patients, 102 were on antihypertensive therapy. The duration of HD and blood and dialysate flow rates were kept constant. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. Student t test for paired and unpaired data for normally distributed variables, Mann-Whitney test for medians, χ2 test for categorical data were employed to compare groups. A significant difference was defined as p < 0.05. sK increased from 5.0 ± 0.4 mmol/L PRE to 5.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L POST (p < 0.0001). sKmax increased from 5.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L PRE to 6.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L POST (p < 0.0001). The percentage of pts with normal sK concentrations decreased from 82% PRE to 29% POST (p < 0.0001). Mild hyperkalemia increased from 18 to 52% (p < 0.001); in 31% of the patients, it was necessary to reduce the K dialysate concentration. None of the patients had severe hyperkalemia PRE, but 19% developed severe hyperkalemia POST (p < 0.0001) necessitating treatment withdrawal. Mean sK in these pts varied from 5.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L PRE to 6.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L at the moment of withdrawal (p < 0.0001) and sKmax from 5.5 ± mmol/L PRE to 6.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L (p< 0.0001). After withdrawal of ACEi/ARB, sK and sKmax concentrations decreased to basal levels within 1 month. There were no significant changes of BW, IWG, SBP, DBP, Na, Hb, Kt/V, sBic, and PCRn in both periods. ACEi/ARB therapy is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia in anuric hemodialysis patients. The proportion of patients with normal sK concentrations decreased from 82 to 29% and with mild hyperkalemia increased from 18 to 52%. Severe hyperkalemia necessitating the interruption of ACEi/ARB therapy developed in 19% of patients. This suggests great caution in the widest utilization of this class of drugs in HD patients.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockers Increases Serum Potassium in Anuric Hemodialysis Patients.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipologia: Full Text
Licenza: NON PUBBLICO - Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 313.98 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
313.98 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/513822
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 5
  • Scopus 11
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 10
social impact