OBJECTIVE: To quantify the amount of AR messenger RNA (mRNA) and to analyze the presence and functionality of the AR protein in X- and Y-carrier human spermatozoa. DESIGN: A molecular and cellular research study. SETTING: Academic research clinic and laboratories. PATIENT(S): Ten normozoospermic volunteers. INTERVENTION(S): Sperm were analyzed for expression of AR mRNA and protein. The functionality of AR protein was assessed after incubation with 1 nM of synthetic androgen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, Western immunoblotting, confocal immunofluorescence, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were performed. RESULT(S): A significant amount of AR mRNA (around 30% of that found in the testis) was found in sperm. Androgen receptor protein was found in both X- and Y-carrier spermatozoa and translocates into the nucleus in the presence of synthetic androgen. CONCLUSION(S): A functional AR is expressed in human sperm. In view of the fact that AR protein is found in both X- and Y-carrier spermatozoa, it most probably is translated in earlier steps of spermatogenesis and moves to Y-carrier spermatids through the cytoplasmic bridges.

Androgen receptor is expressed in both X- and Y-carrier human spermatozoa

FERLIN, ALBERTO
2009

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the amount of AR messenger RNA (mRNA) and to analyze the presence and functionality of the AR protein in X- and Y-carrier human spermatozoa. DESIGN: A molecular and cellular research study. SETTING: Academic research clinic and laboratories. PATIENT(S): Ten normozoospermic volunteers. INTERVENTION(S): Sperm were analyzed for expression of AR mRNA and protein. The functionality of AR protein was assessed after incubation with 1 nM of synthetic androgen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, Western immunoblotting, confocal immunofluorescence, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were performed. RESULT(S): A significant amount of AR mRNA (around 30% of that found in the testis) was found in sperm. Androgen receptor protein was found in both X- and Y-carrier spermatozoa and translocates into the nucleus in the presence of synthetic androgen. CONCLUSION(S): A functional AR is expressed in human sperm. In view of the fact that AR protein is found in both X- and Y-carrier spermatozoa, it most probably is translated in earlier steps of spermatogenesis and moves to Y-carrier spermatids through the cytoplasmic bridges.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11379/499926
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