Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable age-linked neurodegenerative disease with characteristic movement impairments that are caused by the progressive loss of dopamine-containing neurons (DAn) within the substantia nigra pars compacta. It has been suggested that misfolded protein aggregates together with neuroinflammation and glial reactivity, may impact nerve cell function, leading to neurodegeneration and diseases, such as PD. However, not many studies have been able to examine the role of human glial cells in the pathogenesis of PD. With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, it is now possible to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotency and to generate viable human patient-specific DA neurons and glial cells, providing a tremendous opportunity for dissecting cellular and molecular pathological mechanisms occurring at early stages of PD. This reviews will report on recent work using human iPSC and 3D brain organoid models showing that iPSC technology can be used to recapitulate PD-relevant disease-associated phenotypes, including protein aggregation, cell death or loss of neurite complexity and deficient autophagic vacuoles clearance and focus on the recent co-culture systems that are revealing new insights into the complex interactions that occur between different brain cell types during neurodegeneration. Consequently, such advances are the key to improve our understanding of PD pathology and generate potential targets for new therapies aimed at curing PD patients.

Dissecting the non-neuronal cell contribution to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis using induced pluripotent stem cells

Consiglio, Antonella
2021-01-01

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable age-linked neurodegenerative disease with characteristic movement impairments that are caused by the progressive loss of dopamine-containing neurons (DAn) within the substantia nigra pars compacta. It has been suggested that misfolded protein aggregates together with neuroinflammation and glial reactivity, may impact nerve cell function, leading to neurodegeneration and diseases, such as PD. However, not many studies have been able to examine the role of human glial cells in the pathogenesis of PD. With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, it is now possible to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotency and to generate viable human patient-specific DA neurons and glial cells, providing a tremendous opportunity for dissecting cellular and molecular pathological mechanisms occurring at early stages of PD. This reviews will report on recent work using human iPSC and 3D brain organoid models showing that iPSC technology can be used to recapitulate PD-relevant disease-associated phenotypes, including protein aggregation, cell death or loss of neurite complexity and deficient autophagic vacuoles clearance and focus on the recent co-culture systems that are revealing new insights into the complex interactions that occur between different brain cell types during neurodegeneration. Consequently, such advances are the key to improve our understanding of PD pathology and generate potential targets for new therapies aimed at curing PD patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11379/594906
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